The Turk was a chess-playing computer created by Andy Goode.
There were two versions of the Turk. The first one was burned down by Sarah Connor. The second one was programmed by Andy Goode in a coffee shop and entered into a chess competition. The Turk 2 was stolen and Andy Goode was killed. It was obtained by a man who sold it to the Zeira Corporation. The company started to do tests on the Turk, and eventually used it as the basis for John Henry.
The Turk was named for the 18th century chess playing automaton created by engineer Wolfgang von Kempelen for Empress Maria Theresa of Austria. Unlike the Terminator version, the historical Turk was a hoax that hid a human chess master.
Ironically, in trying to destroy the Turk, Sarah provoked the creation of the Turk 2, a more adaptable computer that was quicker on its feet.
Andy describes the Turk 2 in a way that could also apply to Skynet and the Terminator AI: having a hunger for learning but not always learning the right lessons.